Aundah Pattah

(Representative Image)

Aundah Pattah
Type : Hill Fort
Region : Nashik
Height : 0

Both of these forts are said to have been built during the latter half of the fourteenth century, when the Bahamani dynasty (1347-1490) established its power over the Deccan.
The two forts passed into the possession of the Ahmadnagar kings (1490-1636) on the disinte­gration of the Bahamani territories towards the close of the fifteenth century. In 1627 they fell into the hands of the Delhi Emperors and in 1671, during Aurangzeb's reign, Moropant Pingle took them for Shivaji.
Next year Mahabat Khan re-captured the forts, only to lose them in 1675 when Diler Khan, the Moghal general, was defeated by Moropant. From thence onwards till the British conquest in 1818, the Marathas never lost their grip on these strong-holds. Both Shivaji and the Peshvas used to maintain an irregular force of militia for their defence.

How to Reach :
Aundah, on the south-west boundary of Sinnar taluka, about 16 km. (ten miles) south of Devlali, the nearest railway station, is a natural stronghold ending in a sharp cone with no traces of any built fort. The rock-cut steps that formerly led up this cone have since long been destroyed, and the summit to-day remains almost inaccessible. On the opposite hill some fine six-sided basalt pillars stand out from the hill side. A curious trap dyke also stretches in a series of low mounds for some kilometres from the foot of Aundah towards Kavnai. About 3.21 km. (two miles) south of Aundah, stands Pattah, a larger bluff lying within the Ahmadnagar boundaries. It has a fiat top, rising in one place to a low peak, below which there is a large chamber cut in rock serving as an ideal camping place in the hot weather. The two strong-holds with the joining ridge form a regular arc facing northwards. The arc includes the valuable forests of Bhandardara about 16 km. (ten miles) south-east of Belgaon Kurhe.

Asagad / Asadgad

Type:Ground Fort
Region : Akola
Height : 40 feet

In its earliest form it was just a wall of mud made by one Akol Singh to protect the village . He saw a hare chasing a dog and considering this to be an auspicious sign, he built an earthen wall here to protect the village. Akola was fortified majorly in 1697 CE during the reign of Aurangzeb by Asad Khan, from whom the fort took its name (Asadgad). In 1803, Arthur Wellesley camped here before proceeding to win the Battle of Argaon in the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The fortress was dismantled by the British Raj in about 1870. 

Akola fort is notable in that it is bereft of any decorative embellishments.

There are several inscriptions on the fort. An inscription on the Dahi handa gate gives its date of constructions as 1114 AH (1697 CE), 'during the reign of emperor Aurangzeb when Nawab Asad Khan was minister.' Another on the Fateh Buruj bastion has no exact date. One on the Eidgah, contains texts and statement that the building was finished by Khawja Abdul Latif in 1116 AH (1698 CE). On the Agarves gate an inscription in Marathi reads that Govind Appaji in 1843 CE constructed the fort. The latter statement contradicts all the other inscriptions.

Ajinkyatara Fort

Type : Hill Fort
Region : Satara
Height : 500 feet
Base Village : Satara

History : 
Ajinkyatara was the fourth capital of Marathas, the first one being Rajgad, followed by Raigad and then the fort of Jinji. Shilahar King Bhoj-II constructed it in the year 1190. This fort was captured by Bahamanis and then by Adilshah of Bijapur. In the year 1580, wife of Adilshah-I, Chandbibi was imprisoned here. Bajaji Nimbalkar was also kept at same place. During expansion of Swarajya, Shivaji Maharaj ruled over this fort from 27th July1673. Shivaji Maharaj had stayed on this fort for two months due to ill health. After unfortunate death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangjeb invaded Maharashtra in 1682. In 1699 he beleaguered the fort. Prayagji Prabhu was the chief of the fort at that time. On 13th April 1700, the moguls dug trenches and used explosives to blow the bastion named ‘Mangalai’. They succeeded as the ramparts were destroyed and some Marathas were killed. Fortunately Prayagji Prabhu escaped with minor injuries. At that moment there was another explosion and the broken ramparts fell on the moguls. The war progressed and Subhanji took the fort on 21st April 1700. It took four and half months for the Moghals to win the fort. It was renamed as ‘Azamtara’. Tara-Rani’s army again won this fort and named it ‘Ajinkyatara’. Moghals took back the fort again. In 1708 Shahu took the fort by treachery and declared himself as the ruler. In 1719, mother of Maharaj Shahu, ‘Matoshri Yesubai’ was brought here. Later the fort was inherited by Peshwas. After death of Shahu-II, the British captured the fort on 11th February 1818.

How to Reach :
As the fort is situated in the city itself, there are many ways to reach the Fort. We can take any bus from Satara station, which goes via ‘Adaalat Wada’ and alight at Adaalat Wada. Satara to Rajwada bus service is also available. Every 10 minutes a bus plies from Satara to Rajwada. The distance between the Adaalat Wada and Rajwada is of 10 minutes. From Adaalat Wada, a proper way leads us to the main entrance. Good tar road has also been built. All the ways towards the fort take approximately one hour to reach.

Pratapgad Fort

Type : Hill Fort
Region : Satara
Height : 2000 feet

Pratapgad, a very strong hill fort built by Shivaji in 1656-58 AD, is 24kms west of Mahabaleshwar and about 145kms south of Pune.  Before Shivaji, the hill, known as Bhorapya, was a flat-topped high round rock at the head of the densely forested Koyana basin.  The construction of the fort was entrusted to Moropant Pingale, who later became Shivaji’s Peshwa, and Hiroji Indulkar, the architect.  A special feature of the fort is its double line of fortification and walls on all sides, their heights varying according to the nature of the ground.   The upper fort is built across the northern and western crest of the hill measuring about 180sq.metres.  The lower fort is built on the southern and the eastern terrace with walls and strong bastions at corners on projecting spurs.  Apart from other monuments, there is on the eastern portion of the lower fort the temple of Bhavani, the family deity of the Bhosales, built by Shivaji.  Today a motorable road takes the traveler quite close to the fort.

The most important event connected with Pratapgad is the Shivaji-Afzal Khan episode.  It was the base of this fort that Shivaji, on 10the November 1659, scored a historic victory against the mighty Afzal Khan, commander of the Bijapur Adilshahi forces.  The episode, in which Afzal Khan was overpowered and killed by Shivaji, is well known.  In short, it can be said that in a very critical situation Shivaji showed the presence of mind and Afzal Khan paid the price for his rash overconfidence.  Now there exists a grave at the place where Afzal Khan was killed.  To commemorate the tricentennary of that historic event, and equestrian statue of Shivaji was installed at the top of the Pratapgad fort in 1959 AD.

Places of Interest 
Afzalkhan's Tomb - The place is at the base of pratapgad, but these days its sealed & one cant go to this place but it is clearly visible from Zendyacha buruj (Flag Bastion). Zendyacha Buruj - This is flag hosting bastion on the fort very beautiful bastion came out from main body of Pratapgad. When Shivaji killed Afza in the shamiyana, the cannon was fired from this bastion indicating the troops hidden in the forest should attack Afzal Khan's forces.

Entrance Gate: The entrance get is very beautiful & in good condition still. One should observe the intelligent architecture of gate & the bastion opposite the gate protecting it.

Temple of Goddess Bhavani: This temple was originally built by Shivaji maharaj & he established beautiful image of godess in the temple. One can also see sword of Hambirrao mohite in the temple.

Monument of Shivaji Maharaj constructed on the top of the fort.

How to Reach :
While traveling along NH17 i.e Mumbai -Goa high way, one has to take diversion from Poladpur & take the way which goes to hill station mahabaleshwar. The fort is very close to this road, on a small diversion. If you are visiting Mahabaleshwar you can descend down on Poladpur road & go to Pratapgad fort. Vehicles reach almost till the main entrace & you dont need to climb a lot to see the fort.


Sindhudurga Fort

Type : Sea Fort
Region : Konkan
Height : 0
Base Village : Malvan

Sindhudurg fort stands on a rocky island, known as Kurte, barely a km, from the Malavan is 510kms south of Mumbai and 130kms north of Goa.  Sindhudurg was built in 1664-67 AD by shivaji when all his attempts to take the island fort of Janjira proved futile.  The construction was done under the supervision of Hiroji Indulkar, an able architect.  Shivaji had invited 100 Portuguese experts from Goa for the construction of the fort.  It is also recorded that 3000 workers were employed round the clock for three years to build Sindhudurg.  It was the body from the Sack of Surat that went into the building of Sindhudurg.

One of the best preserved forts of the Marathas, the 48 acre Sindhudurg fort has a four kms long zigzag line of 9 metres high and 3 metres wide rampart with 42 bastions.  Apart from the huge stones, the building material involved 2000 khandis (72,576kgs)of iron erecting the massive curtain wall and bastions. A notable feature is that the foundation stones were laid down firmly in molten lead.

The fort is approachable from the Malavan pier by a boat through a narrow navigable channel between two smaller islands of Dhontara and Padmagad.  The main gate, flanked by massive bastions, faces the city.  On the parapet, close to the entrance, under two small domes Shivaji’s palm and footprint in dry lime are preserved.  Also, in thefort there is the Shivaji temple - the only one of its kind in the country – where the image of Shivaji is without a beard! Inside the fort there are some temples, tanks and three wells.  It also houses some twenty Hindu-Muslim hereditary families.  On a rocky island between Sindhudurg and the coast stood the small for of Padmagad, now in ruins. It acted as a screen for Sindhudurg and was also used for ship-building.

After Shivaji, Sindhudurg passed through the hands of Rajaram-Tarabai, Angres, Peshwa and the Bhosales of Kolhapur.  It was briefly captured by the British in 1765 Ad And was renamed by them as ‘Fort Augustus’.  Later in 1818 AD, the British dismantled the fort’s defence structures.

Places of Interest 
Footprint & handprint of Shivaji maharaj.
The only temple of Shivaji maharaj constructed in 17th century.
Ranichi Vela - constructed by Shivaji's daughter in law Tara Rani.
3 wells "Doodh, Dahi & Sakhar" named by first 3 elements of Panchamrut.
Mahadev Mandir.
Tehelani Buruj (Bastion of Vigilance) : If you climb on it, exterior of fort from all directions is visible.
Coconut tree with two branches is seen on the fort.

How to Reach
One has to travel to Malvan beach in Sindhudurg District to reach the fort. From here you have to take ferry ride to reach the fort.


The fort had a permanent garrison of 150 and lands were assigned for its maintenance in the neighbouring villages. Administrative orders were frequently sent for execution by the Maratha government to the officer in charge of this fort. Though local tradition ascribes its building to Shivaji, documents show that the Muhammedans had possession of this fort. Its appearance makes it likely that it is older than either and the well is ascribed to mythological seers or Rshis.  After the establishment of the Satara Raja in 1818, Captain Grant obtained the surrender of Dategad sometime in the month of May in exchange for five horses of the fort commandant which had been captured by the local militia and promising to allow the garrison their arms and property. The fort with its walls and tanks is in a state of bad repair and at many places, it is in ruins. The tanks are out of use as there is no habitation in the fort.

Places of Interest 
On the east a little more than half-way up is a curious dungeon. Some steps lead down about eight feet into the rock in which a room apparently about thirty feet by twelve and eight high has been made. It is fearfully dark and two small holes are perforated for light and air. This room, it is said, was used as an oubliette or dungeon.

There is also a very curious well, 100 feet deep cut twenty feet square out of the solid rock, and with a flight of sixty-four rock-cut steps twelve feet wide. The water is approached through a sort of gateway made by leaving shewn a portion of the rock joining the two sides of the passage. The water is always good, fresh and abundant. The story is that the well belongs to the Koyna river and that a leaf thrown into that river at the right place will be found floating in this well.

There are two large tanks thirty feet square and a smaller one all said to be for the storage of grain. This seems doubtful; they were more probably used to store water drawn from the big well. On the south of the fort are the remains of four buildings and facing north and adjoining the rock is the kacheri building or court-house.

On the east face is a tank made in the side of the hill at the foot of the scarp and cut out of the rock in the form of a cow's mouth. It was proposed to use this spring for drinking and irrigation water supply to the town of Patan, but the Irrigation department had found the scheme impracticable.

How to Reach
Dategad or Sundargad (Patan T; RS. Karad, 27 m.) about 2,000 feet above the plain, lies three miles north-west of Patan. It is one of the highest points for many miles and not commanded by any neighbouring hill. The ascent is about three miles by a very steep bridle path leading on to a plateau whence there is a steep ascent to the fort. The scarp is about thirty feet high, but owing to scattered boulders is in places easy to climb. About 600 feet long by 18O feet broad, the fort is oblong in shape and has an area of about three acres. The entrance is about the centre of the west face. A passage, seven feet broad, is cut about twenty feet down from the top of the scarp. This passage contained a gateway of a single-pointed arch ten feet high which has fallen in. About twenty-rock-cut steps lead out on the top turning south halfway up. In the corner of the angle is an image of God Maruti. The walls are in ruins and consisted originally of large laterite blocks, well cut, and put together without mortar. These must be the original structures though there are many modern additions. The wall originally had a loopholed parapet about four feet high.


Rajgad Fort

Height:3500 feet
Base Village:Sakhar

Rajgad enjoys a unique position among the hill forts of Maharashtra.  It possesses all the salient features of fort architecture which are peculiar to the Deccan region.  Situated on one of the spurs of the Sahyadri Mountains known as Murum hill, Region is about 35kms south-west of Pune.  The fort is at a height of approx.  1300 metres from sea-level and comprises three terraces (machis) and a citadel (Balekilla).  There are four gates called Gunjavane, Pali, Alu and Kaleshwari or Dindi gate.  The first two gates lead to the Padmavati machi, the third to the Sanjivani and the last to the Suvela machi.  Rajgad looks like a winged bird flying in the sky – the Padmavati and the Sanjivani machis forming its two wings and the Balekilla and the Suvela machi its main body.

All the four of the fort have remains of buildings which included residential quarters, sadar or state offices, bazaar or business quarter, granary, armoury, temples, etc.  the fort had ample supply of water through tanks, cisterns and wells.  The water-supply being better on the Padmavati machi, it was major centre of activity on the fort.

Rajgad, formerly known as Murumdeo, was earlier held by the Nizamshahi and Adilshahi rulers.  By 1648 AD, it was under the firm control of Shivaji, who gave it the new name Rajgad, the king’s fort.   Shivaji’s construction activities here continued till 1670 AD.  For nearly twenty five years Rajgad was the pre-coronation capital of Shivaji.  Out of Shivaji’s short life of fifty years (18,306 days) his stay of 2827 days at Rajgad was the longest.  The fort witnessed a number of major political events of the Maratha period.
It was from Rajgad that Shivaji went to meet Afzal Khan in 1659 AD.  His departure to Agra return from there, both these historic events took place at Rajgad.  Rajgad, Shivaji’s second son, was born here.  By ‘Treaty of Purandar’ in 1655 AD, shivaji ceded 23 forts to the Mughals, but not Rajgad.  During the Peshwa period Rajgad did not play any significant part mainly due to the shifting of political activities from the hill forts to the cities.  Rajgad remained with the Sachiv family of Bhor till 1947 AD

Getting There :
Get ST bus from pune to velha. Get down at Sakhar. From here you will have to walk 2 Kms to reach the base of Rajgad. From here its two hours climb to reach the top.

Places of Interest 
One of the beautiful hill fort in maharashtra offers many places of attraction.
Rajgad has 3 machee namely Suvela, Sanjivani & Padmavati. All the three machee are worth visiting
Balekilla: inner fort of Rajgad is very beautiful & one can have very nice view of machee from this place


Chavand Fort

Nizamshah Malik Ahemad conquered this fort in the year 1487. Bahadurshah, son of second Burhan Nizamshah was imprisoned on this fort for one year in 1594. In 1637, Shahjiraje Bhosle gave this fort to Mughal emperor.

In 1818, When Maraths defeated by British troops, British troops destroyed the protective walls of the fort.

Places of Interest 
There are three carved caves on the fort.

A temple of goddess Chavdai is on the top of the fort. The temple is very small but the statue of the goddess is beautiful.

One can find 7 water tanks on the top arranged like a maze

How to Reach
The fort is situated on the left side of Junner – Ghatghar road. It is around 8-9 kms from Hadsar fort.

The way to the fort goes through base village called chavand.

Chavand is tricky to climb as all four sides are wall alike. Few years ago people had to climb this patch using rope but now fencing work is done in some places, still one has to be familiar with mountaineering.

Once this patch is over, one can find steps carved in rocks. After these steps one can reach the rock carved entrance of the fort.

Ahmednagar Fort

Height : 0 Mtr
Base Village:Ahemadnagar

No clearly defined route between the fort and the town of Bingar. There were many small pagodas and mosques round the pettah and the fort, but none exactly between, or between the fort and Bhingar, or nearer to the fort than those towns. The fort was built by Malik Shah Ahmed (after whom the city of Ahmednagar is named) in 1427 CE.  He was the first sultan of the Nizam Shahi dynasty and he built the fort to defend the city against invaders from neighbouring Idar. Initially it was made of mud but major fortification began in 1559 under Hussain Nizam Shah. 

It took four years and was finally finished in 1562. In 1596, Chand Bibi the queen regent                                                                                                                                                                                                  successfully repulsed the Mughal invasion but when Akbar attacked again in 1600 the fort went to the Mughals. Aurangzeb died at Ahmednagar fort at the age of 97 on February 21, 1707. After Aurangzeb's death the fort passed to the Marathas and later the Scindias. During the period of instability in the Maratha Empire following the death of Madhavrao II, Daulat Scindia had the fort and its surrounding region ceded to him. In 1797, he imprisoned Nana Phadanvis the Peshwa diplomat at Ahmednagar fort.

In 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, Arthur Wellesley defeated the Maratha forces and the East India  Company came into possession of the fort. It was used by the British Raj as a prison and this was were Jawaharlal Nehru,  Abul Kalam Azad, Sardar Patel and other members of Indian National Congress were jailed for almost three years after they passed the Quit India Resolution. Jawaharlal Nehru wrote his popular book -the Discovery of India- while he was imprisoned at Ahmednagar fort. Currently the fort is under the administration of the Armoured Corps of the Indian Army.

The Ahmednagar Fort is located in the heart of the city of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. It was the headquarters of the Ahmednagar Sultanate. In 1803 it was taken by the British in during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Later it was used by the British Raj as a prison. Currently the fort is under the administration of the Armoured Corps of the Indian Army.


The fort is said to have been originally built by Singhan ruler of Devgiri (1210-47).[Shivaji Souvenir-Marathi Section page 82.]

The fort was repaired by Shivaji about 1676, and it sustained an attack from Fattesingh Mane in 1805 then camped at Rahimatpur.

How to Reach
Bhusangad (Khatav T; RS Rahimatpur 22 m. NW; p. 713) in Khatav about eleven miles south-west of Vaduj is a roughly oval solitary hill rising about 600 feet above the surrounding plain. On the north-west half down the slope are a number of houses which were mostly inhabited by Brahmans formerly attached to the fort garrison. In recent times most of the Brahman families have left for other places to seek service and business. The ground above the fort slopes towards the top. Except near the gateway on the north-east the walls are of light masonry. The fort wall stands in a decayed condition.  The ascent is easy. Bhushangad is not commanded by any hill within five miles.

Ausa Fort

The fort featured prominently in the conflicts between the Deccan Sultanates in the post Bahamani period. In later days it was captured by Malik Ambar in 1014 Hijri and was renamed by him as Ambarapur which was later changed to Amrapur.

Places of Interest 
The fort is situated in a depression surrounded by high ground on all the sides so that from its highest point one can have a view of the approaching armies even at a great distance while the main parts of the fort remain hidden from the latter. Almost square in shape, the fort has a moat or khandak (ditch) around, nearly 36.58 metres (120 ft) in width, now nearly dry.

Fort has a glacis, a retaining wall, a covered way, a double rampart fortified further with massive bastions, which are mostly semi-circular mounted with huge cannon. Some of these guns bear the names of Turkish engineers in service under Adil Sahi and Nizam Sahi kings. At present there are no buildings of any note except for a recent Baradari constructed by Colonel Meadows Taylor on a circular bastion of the fortification adjoining the first inner gateway of the fort.

There are some badly abraded Nilgari inscriptions fitted into the stone masonry of the guard rooms. One of them records the name of Murtaza Nizam sah and the date 1529. Besides the other buildings, there is the usual Pani mahal in a ruined condition, quite a few large wells now unused, a mosque and a dargah of one Sayyad Sadat.

Outside the fort is an old Jama mosque and in the prayer niche are two inscriptions in Persian, which record the names of Emperor Aurangzeb and Sohrab Khan, the builder of the mosque. It was built in 1680.

How to Reach
Ausa, with 10,007 inhabitants in 1961 is the headquarter of the tahsil of the same name, situated 20 kilometres to the south-west of Latur, near the head of a small tributary of the Tavarja.

fort covers a little over five hectares (13 acres) in area and lying 3:21 km (2 miles) due south of the inhabited locality.

Bharatgad Fort

The fort has constantly changed hands. In 1670, Shivaji surveyed the hill but finding no water, would not fortify it.

Ten years later (1680) Phond Savant, fearing that it may fall into the hands of a chief named Bavdekar, cut the great well through the rock, and finding water, built the fort (1701).

[Captain Hutchinson (Memoir on the Savantvadi State, 156) mentions a report that after a few shots from the fort guns, the water of the well disappears. In support of the truth of this story he notices that the garrison had wooden water tanks.

Places of Interest 
The citadel walls are about 17 to 18 feet high and five feet thick.

At the opposite ends of a diagonal running north and south are outstanding round towers. Within the Citadel, about a quarter of its whole length from the north tower is a small temple, and near it is a big well about north tower is a small temple, and near it is a great well about 228 feet deep, cut through solid rock.

About seventeen yards from each side and 100 yards from each end of this citadel, is an outer wall with nine or ten bastions. The wall is ten or twelve feet thick with an outer ditch. It is not very strong and seems to have been built without mortar.

Some parts of the wall on the east and the north are dilapidated. Water is abundant.

How to Reach
Bharatgad Fort (Malvan T.;), on the south shore of the Kalavali creek, on a hill commanding the village of Masure. is a fort with an area of between five and six acres. The inside of the citadel is an oblong of 105 yards by 60.

One can catch Mumbai - Malvan ST & further travel by another bus to Masure. ST buses to Malvan also run from Pune & Kolhapur.

Murud Janjira Fort

Situated on a rock of oval shape near the port town of Murud, 165 kms south of Mumbai, Janjira is one of the strongest marine forts of India (the word ‘Janjira’ is a corruption of the Arabic word Jazira for island).  The forts is approached by sailboats from Rajapuri jetty.  The main gate of the fort faces Rajapuri on the shore and can be seen only when one is quite close to it.  It has a small postern gate towards the open sea for escape.  The fort has 19 rounded bastions, still intact. There are many canons of native and European make rusting on the bastions.  Now in ruins, the fort in its heyday had all necessary facilities, e.g., palaces, quarters for officers, mosque, a big fresh water tank, etc.  On the outer wall flanking the main gate, there is a sculpture depicting a tiger-like beast clasping elephants in its claws.  This sculpture, its meaning difficult to interpret, appears on many fort-gates of Maharashtra.

Originally the fort was small wooden structure built by a Koli chief in the late 15th century. It was captured by Pir Khan, a general of Nizamshah of Ahmednagar.  Later the fort was strengthened by Malik Ambar, the Abyssinian Siddi regent of Ahmednagar kings.  From then onward Siddis became independent, owing allegiance to Adilshah and the Mughals as dictated by the times.  Despite their repeated attempts, the Portuguese, the British and the Marathas failed to subdue the Siddi power.  Shivaji’s all attempts to capture Janjira fort failed due to one reason or the other.  When Sambhaji also failed, he built another island fort, known as Kansa or Padmadurg, just 9kms north of Janjira.  The Janjira state came to an end after 1947.  The palace of the Nawabs of Janjira at Murud is still in good shape.

Getting There : 

By Air : Nearest airport is Mumbai, 165 kms.
By Rail : Nearest railhead is Panvel, 122 kms.
By Road : Mumbai - Murud via Revdanda, 165 kms. Pune - Murud via Mahad, 230 kms. Alibag - Murud, 52 kms.

State Transport buses ply from Mumbai, Pune to Murud.


Chakan Fort

The fort is very old but records related to the fort are available only from 1443. Then the fort was with Bahamani kings. In 1595, the fort was given to Shivaji’s Grandfather Maloji Bhosle by Bahadurshah of Ahemadnagar. In 1648, Killedar Firangoji Narsala submitted to services of Shivaji & the fort came to Maratha Kingdom.

In 1672, Shaistekhan besieged the fort. The battled lasted for four months & Firangoji kept the fort away from the reach of Mughals. Finally Shaistekhan used landmine to destroy the wall & then Firangoji had to surrender the fort

Places of Interest 
In older times, the fortification was very strong. The fort was protected by walls from all the four sides. Many vigilance towers(Buruj) were constructed in this wall.

The fort was surrounded by Huge canal which used to be filled with water always for protecting the fort.

Currently the fort is in very bad shape & most of the structures are destroyed

How to Reach
Chakan is near Pune city. One can take bus or even cab to reach Chakan. It is just 30 Kms away from Pune.

The fort is on the ground & was in a square shaped.

Govalkot / Gopalgad / Govindgad / Anjanvel Fort

According to local report, the fort was built about 1690, by the Habshi of Janjira. The Habshi may have repaired the fort. But the position of the Redjaiji image seems to show that it was part of the original fort and that the builder or renewer was a Hindu king, probably Shivaji (1670). From the Habshi, it was taken by Angre (about 1744), from him by the Peshva (1755), and from the Peshva by the English (1818).

Places of Interest 
Water lasts till April and provisions can be had in a village, two miles off. The walls and bastions are in ruins. The place has little natural or artificial strength. There are two doorways, one to the north, the other to the east, and eight battlements. On the south wall, is an image of Redjaiji.

How to Reach
Govalkot Fort [Tulajl Angre called this fort Govindgad and the Anjanvel fort, Gopalgad, Gopal and Govind being generally used for any couple of things very closely alike.] (in Chiplun municipal area), on a small hill rising from rich fields, surrounded on three sides by the Chiplun creek and with a filled up ditch on the fourth, covers an area of about two acres.


Raigad Fort

Base Village:Pachad

Raigad was Shivaji’s capital, the hill fort where he was crowned (1674 AD) and where he died (1680 AD).  Strategically situated on an irregular wedge-shaped mass of rock, detached from the main body of Sahyadri Mountains by a deep valley and inaccessible from three sides, Raigad is 210kms south of Mumbai and 27kms north of Mahad.  The fort’s 5.12sq.kms hill-top plateau has three main points Hirakani in the west, Takamak in the north and Bhavani in the east.  There is only one pathway to Raigad, probably in keeping with Shiviaji’s strategy “the fort’s approach should be easy for friends and impossible for foes”.  A motorable road leads to Chit Darwaja, about 2kms from Pachad, the village at the base, where lies the Samadhi of Jijabai, Shivaji’s mother.  A long climb from Pachad takes one to the Mahadarwaza, flanked by two massive bastions and a high curtain wall.

The top plateau is covered with a large number of remains of buildings and reservoirs.  Behind the Ganga Sagar reservoir are two high towers, in Muslim style.  Behind the towers is the Balekilla or citadel, entered by the Palakhi-darwaza.  On way to the right are remains of chambers of women of Royal families and on the left those of the Darbar of Shivaji.  On a low mound in the centre is the site of Shivaji’s throne.  Further north is the two-row market place, the Jagadishwar temple in an enclosure and the Samadhi of shivaji, and also that of his favourite dog, Waghya.

The history of Raigad, earlier known as Rairi, is obscure.  In the 12th century Rairi was a seat of the Shirke-Palegar family.  After changing several hands, it was captured by Shivaji from Chandrarao More in 1656 AD.  Shivaji chose Rairi for his capital and renamed it as Raigad.  The gigantic construction work was entrusted to Abaji Sondeve and Hiroji Indulkar.  In its heyday Raigad had more than 300 houses, and structures.  After Shivaji, the fort remained in the hands of Sambhaji till 1689 AD, when it was captured by the Mughals.  Reverted to the Marathas in 1735 AD, Raigad was surrendered to the British in 1818 AD.

For its immense beauty, Raigad remains a hiker's paradise. The formidable Pratapgad fort with its equestrian statue of Shivaji is an interesting excursion.

You can also visit Gangasagar Lake or worship at the nearby Jagadishwar Temple or pay your respects to the great Maratha warrior at his Samadhi.

For Trekking :
There are many interesting routes to Raigad, varying from the relatively easy to the challenging. The path starts from Pachad, 24 kms from Mahad, a shallow sea port on the banks of the Savitri River. Raigad can also be an adventure-filled day excursion from the hill station of Mahabaleshwar or from Pune.

Getting there
By Air : Nearest airport is Pune 126 kms.
By Rail : Nearest railhead is Pune.
By Road : Mumbai-Raigad 210 kms. via Mahad. Pune-Raigad 126 kms. Mahad-Raigad 27 kms.

State Transport buses ply from Mumbai, Kolhapur and Pune to Ratnagiri and also from Ratnagiri to Pawas via Bhat


Khanderi Fort

On 28th November 1670, Shivaji visited the iseland with 3000 contingent. Troops surveyed the iseland for three days. This alerted British garrison in Mumbai as, allowing Shivaji to construct fort so close to Mumbai was the last thing they would wanted. After 8 years, on 14th Aug 1678, the construction of fort started. The fort was extremely important as it was placed between Janjira of Siddi & British of Mumbai & would forbid reinforcement to Siddi from British.

British men tried hard to prevent this act & sent message to Maaynak Bhandari, who was the officer in charge of Khanderi & asked him to stop construction as British claimed that the iseland was given to them by Portugees along with Mumbai. Maaynak wrote in reply "I obey orders of my master & cant stop construction till my master asks me to do so". British took agressive stance on this reply & deputed warship "Hunter" along with 3 other ships near Khanderi. In reply Shivaji garrisonned Khanderi with 150 troops & 4 cannons.

Daulat Khan, another naval officer of Shivaji provided huge re-inforcement to Maaynak on 11th Sept 1679. British promptly sent another warship, "Revenge" to help existing fleet & then started the first big naval battle between Maratha & british navy. British fleet was badly defeated & had to retreat. This clash was followed by many small clashes between the two.

On 17th Nov. 1679, Maratha captured British warship named "Dove". This was a big setback for so called "Royal navy" & as a result they called off the war. Fort remained with Shivaji still he was alive but after his death, Siddi immediately conquered the fort taking advantage of instability.

In 1755, Khanderi was conquered by Marathas & then ruled by Angre family till 1818. 

Places of Interest 
There is a big lighthouse in the fort which is interesting. This is to show rocky patches in the sea. This was constructed in 1867.

 One can see cannons mounted on carts inside the fort

How to Reach
One can travel to Thaal, which is southwards of Mumbai in Raigad District. ST buses fly frequently between Mumbai & Thaal. There are two iselands in the sea, which are normally visible from coast of Thaal. The one near to the sea shore is Underi & the one in deep sea is Khanderi.

Entry into Khanderi fort is restricted &  one needs to take permission from Archiology department. From Thal, there is no specific ferry service but one has to find a fisherman who could take you to the fort.

Ramgad Fort

Type:Ground Fort
Base Village: Ramgad, Malvan

One of the forts in Malvan Tehsil. Situated about 40 km from Malvan and 10-12 km from Kankavli, this fort belongs to Shivaji era. Lovers should spare some time for visiting this fort in their intinery of Sindhudurg Fort. This fort has seven cannons on it, which are built in the inverse position. Ramgad fort has got much significance in the history. In those days, the fame, power and bravery of the king was determined by the number of forts he used own or rule. Logistically, this fort held an important position in the supply chain for materials, men, and food artillery from Vijaydurg to Sindhudurg.

In 1862, the walls were in a dilapidated state. There was no garrison and no water. There were 21 guns and 106 cannon balls all old and useless. [Gov. List of Civil Forts, 1862.]

Ramgad surrendered to the British on the 6th of April 1818.

Places of Interest 
Except a towered wall leading to a reservoir, there are no defences. The walls about 18' high, ten feet thick, and more than 700 yards in circumference, have fifteen small towers most of them with three embrasures.

The west gateway is an eight feet wide and fifteen feet long passage, lined with stone steps between the fort wall and a tower about 18' high and 18' in diameter.

Inside the fort are the commandant's house, and an interesting ruined temple about thirty-six yards square.


Jaidurg (Underi)

After Shivaji successfully constructed Khanderi, great naval battle between Maratha & British navy started. Also in 1680, Maratha kingdom underwent great disaster of Shivaji's death. Taking advantage of this unstable situation, Siddi captured the Underi island & without wasting any time constructed fort on it.

In 1681, Balaji Pilaji Tabib promised Sambhaji that he will take Underi. He attacked Underi alongwith Maaynak Bhandari but failed.

Underi was very important as it was placed between Thal & Khanderi. Hence even Peshwe tried to conquer it in 1732 & 1733 but yet again returned with failure. In 1736, Chimaji Appa & manaji Angre opned front against Siddi Saat who was then Chief of the fort. Siddi Saat was killed but fort couldnot be taken.

In 1758, Tukaji Angre Sieged the fort but could not conquer. In 1759, Nanasaheb Peshwe himself with Sarkhel Angrelead the mission. This time troops reached till walls of Underi, but once again failed to conquer.

Finally after 80 years, in 1760 Naro Trimbak, officer of Peshwe took the fort successfully. Peshwe rightly named it "Jaidurg".

In 1774, Siddi attempted to conquer Underi but failed.

How to Reach
One can travel to Thaal by ST bus. From Thaal, one has to negotiate with local fishermen to take you to the fort.

Mahur Fort

Mahur village, also called Mahor, is 40 kms north-west of Kinwat town in Handed district in the Marathawada division of Maharashtra.  Earlier Mahur was a big city and a Suba of southern Berar.  Situated on an eastern branch of Sahyadri Mountains, the hill fort here is very old and exists at least from the time of the Yadavas.  It was subsequently occupied by many powers - the Gonds, the Bahamanis, the Adilshani and the Nizamshahi rulers and finally the Mughals and their vassals.  The fort on its three sides is girded by the Painganga River.

The fort built on top of two adjoining hills, was protected by walls, ramparts and bastions.  It had two main gateways - one on the southern side and the other on the northern side.  The northern gate is still in a reasonably good condition, and so is its southern rampart nearly five metres wide.  The fort had a palace, a mosque, a granary, an armoury, etc., now all in ruins.  At the centre of the fort, there is a big tank call Ijalatalav.

Being situated on the main route from the north to the Deccan, Mahur has a long history.  There is evidence to show that Mahur, ancient Matapur, was an important place at the time of the Satavahanas and the Rashtrakutas.  The Renuka temple on an adjoining hill was built by the Yadavas.  After remaining with the Gond rulers for sometime, Mahur passed on to the Bahamanis in the 15th century and was made a Suba.  In the 16th century, Mahur, being strategically placed at their centre, faced a lot of fire from the infighting between the Nizamshahi, Adilshahi and Imadshahi rulers.  Then in the early 17th century, Mahur became a part of the Mughal Empire and came to be ruled by their Subedars.  When Shahjahan rebelled against his father Jahangir, he took refuge in the Mahur fort along with his wife and children, including 6 years old Aurangzeb.

About 2kms from Mahur bus-stand, there are two Elephant type (situated on an island near Mumbai) rock-cut caves of the Rashtrakuta period.

How to Reach

By Air
Nearest Airport is Nagpur, 200 kms.

By Road
Mumbai - Ahmednagar - Paithan - Jalan - Washim - Pusad - Mahur, 717 kms. Mahurgad - Kinwat, 50 kms.

By Rail
The nearest railhead is Kinwat, 50 kms. but Nanded is 126 ks. is the more convenient railhead on South Central railway.



According to Grant Duff [Marathas, 13 note 3 (Old Edition).], Bhairavgad was one of the forts built by the Rajas of Panhala. The garrison in Maratha times was furnished by soldiers sent from Satara. There are no traces of houses and the walls are in ruins. In the last Maratha war, Bhairavgad was captured by the English on the 23rd of May, 1818. A detachment of a hundred rank and file was sent by Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy under command of Lieutenant Capon from Savarde in Ciplun in Ratnagiri district They proceeded to Talavde, a village at the foot of the hill from which there was an ascent of nearly six miles. But a message brought down the native officer in charge of the fort with a party of the garrison, who promised to surrender next morning on condition that the arms and property belonging to him and the garrison about a hundred strong, were respected and an escort of sepoys allowed as far as Patan. The fort was accordingly taken without resistance. [Pendhari and Maratha War Papers.]

How to Reach
Bhairavgad Fort (Patan T; RS. Karad 48 m. W.,) twenty miles south-west of Patan and about four miles west of Mala, from which it is pretty easily accessible by a rough footpath through dense jungle, is a rounded hill situated on the face of the Sahyadri range and jutting about a hundred feet into the Konkan. A narrow neck thirty yards long separates it from the cliff on the east, which rises some 300 feet above it. About five acres in area, the hill has on the east a temple of Bhairav which gives it, its name. The temple roofed with earthen tiles is in a state of good repair. It was repaired in 1957.

Suvarnadurg Fort

The island fort of Suvarnadurg stands close to Harne in Ratnagiri Distric, a natural harbour famous for fishing and its marketing.  A very strong fort, its walls are cut out of solid rock and the ramparts are raised by using huge square blocks.  No mortar was used in the walls.  The fort has many bastions and a postern gated on the western side.  The hidden main gate opens towards the east.  It has on its threshold a carved figure of a tortoise and on the side wall, that of Maruti (Hanuman).  Inside the fort there were several buildings, water tanks and a place for ordinance.  All the buildings are now in ruins.

The fort was probably built by the Bijapur kings in the 17th century.  Captured and strengthened by Shivaji, it became a stronghold of Maratha navy and remained with the Peshwas till 1818 AD.  It was one of the main naval bases of the Angres.

Gova, Kanakadurg and Fatehgarh forts on the mainland are separated from Suvarnadurg by a narrow channel.  The small Gova fort was stronger than the other two.  It has two gates, one towards the land and another towards the sea.  On the wall of the sea-gate there are carved figures of a tiger, eagle and elephants.  The old buildings inside the fort are in ruins.
Kanakadurg has the sea on three sides.  Nothing remains of the fort, except two broken bastions.  There is a light at its higher point.  Fatehgarh is in complete ruin.  Most probably, these three small forts were built by Kanhoji Angre (1667-1729AD) to protect Suvarnadurg from the land route.

Vasai Fort (Bassein

Vasai, also called Bassein, lies about 48 kms north of Mumbai just across the Ulhas River.  The fort in the old city was the headquarter of the Portuguese in the north, next in importance to Goa.  The coastal land-fort of Vasai was surrounded by sea on three sides and to the landside it had a moat which was filled by sea-water.  Its 4.5kms long strong stone wall had 11 bastions.  The fort had two gates – the westward land-gate.  There was also a small citadel in the fort.  Well – equipped with water-tanks, store-houses, armoury, etc., the fort also had fields for growing grains and vegetables.  All the old structures inside the wall are now in ruins.

Vasai came into prominence when the ancient harbour of Sopara (now Nalsopara village, 10kms north of Vasai) became unfit for use.  However, Vasai continued to be a trading centre.  A small fort-like structure was erected here in 1533 AD by Malik Tughan, the commander of Bahadur Shah, Sultan of Gujarat.  In 1534 AD, the Portuguese forced Bahadur Shah to cede Vasai in perpetuity.  Here, first they constructed the citadel (Balekilla), and then in 1590AD, the present fort with its ramparts and other structures came into being.  For the next about 150 years Vasai enjoyed opulence and prosperity.  The Portuguese built here magnificent houses, convents, churches and an orphanage.  Only the Hidalgos (Portuguese nobles) were allowed to reside within the fort walls.  Vasai was the main naval base and sort of ship-building centre of the Portuguese.  The end came in 1739AD, when Chimaji Appa, Peshwa Bajirav’s brother, stormed the fort and captured it with great loss of life.  It was here in 1802 AD, the Peshwa Bajirav II signed the infamous “Treaty of Bassein” which virtually dissolved the Maratha Confederacy.  Finally, the fort and the city of Vasai was ceded to the British in 1817 AD.

How to Reach :
Vasai is a station on Western Railway and is easily accessible by Rail and Road. One can hire an auto to reach the fort. 

Vijaydurga Fort

Vijaydurg, situated 48kms south of Ratnagiri, is one of the strongest marine forts on the west coast of India.  It is also an excellent harbour.  Built on a hill on the mouth of Vaghotan River, the fort was protected on three sides by the sea and on the east side by ditch, now filled up.  After crossing the front gate on the east, the path, skirting round the massive middle wall, enters the hidden inner gateway.  The strong triple line of fortifications had 27 bastions, some of them two-storeyed. Within the citadel there were many buildings and storehouses, now all in ruins except a structure called Rest House.  For the supply of water there were several wells and large tanks.

In recent years a submerged wall 100metres east of the fort has been discovered.  The under-sea wall is 3 metres high, 7 metres wide and 122 metres long.  How and why this sea-wall was built is not clear.  On the bank of the Vaghotan River, about 3kms from the fort, there was a wet dock where the Marathas used to build and repair their ships.

Vijayadurg is an ancient site.  Initially known as Gheria, it was enlarged by the Bijapur rulers and then strengthened and enlarged in the mid-17th century by Shivaji, to whom it owes its triple line of fortifications, towers and also its new name, Vijayadurg – Victory Fort.  During the time of Kanhoji Angre (1667-1729 AD), the naval chief of the Marathas, the fort was so strong and firmly held that it successfully withstood assaults of the European maritime powers.  Later in 1756 AD it fell to the combined operations of the English and the Peshwas.  However, it remained in the hands of the Peshwas till 1818 AD when finally it was surrendered to the English.

How to Reach
Vijaydurg is around 30 Kms away from devgad. On devgad Mumbai road a track goes to Vijaydurg from village called "Jamsanda". Follow this road & you will reach the vilage Vijaydurg.

This fort is accessible from land & there is no need of ferry.


Panhala / Panhalgad

Panhala or Panhalgarh, about 19kms north-west of Kolhapur, is possibly the largest and most important fort of the Deccan.  Roughly triangular in shape, the hill fort stands at a height of about 850 metres and has a circumference of approximately 7.25kms.  Half of its length is protected by a natural scarp reinforced by a parapet wall and the remaining half is surrounded by a strong stone wall strengthened with bastions.  The fort had three magnificent double walled gates, out of which two have survived.  The Teen Darwaza  to the west is an imposing and powerful structure.  There are a number of ruined monuments in the fort.  The most impressive among them are the three huge granaries.  The largest among them, the Ganga Kothi, cover nearly 950 sq m space and 10.7 metres high.  In the north-east corner there is a double story building, called Sajja Kothi, where Shivaji had imprisoned his errant son, Sambhaji.

Panhala was the capital of the Shilahara king Bhoja II during 1178-1209 Ad.  It was successively held by the Yadava and Bahamani Kings.  In 1489 AD, the fort and the territory was taken over by the Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur.  Shivaji seized the fort in 1659 AD.  It was from here that Shivaji, when encircled by the forces of Siddi Johar, escaped one rainy night to Vishalgarh.  Later, the fort remained with the Marathas, except for a short period in between, when it went to the Mughals.  The fort remained with the Kolhapur State till India achieved independence.

The famous Marathi poet Moropanta (1729-94Ad) was bron and brought up at Panhala.  There is also the Samadhi of Ramachandra Amatya, the author of Ajnapatra, an important work on statecraft, including for construction.  Today, Panhala is a sort of hill station and provides all the necessary facilities for tourists.

How to reach

By air
The nearest airport is at Kolhapur, which lies at a short distance of 35 kilometer far off from Panhala. There are many Indian Airlines that operates domestic flights which well connects other main cities of Maharashtra and India. Once you hail here, just outside the airport you can get numerous facilities of tourist taxi to reach Panhal. The nearest airport is Mumbai’s Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport which schedule regular international flights for tourist to hail here who travels from other countries of the world. this intenational airport is situated at a long distance of 420 kilometer far away from Panhala Fort, it also well connects not only major cities of India but also some cities of abroad. Other main domestic airports near by Panhala are Kolhapur Airport (25 kilometer), Sambre Airport in Belgaum (120 kilometer), and Lohegaon Airport in Pune (197 kilometer).

By rail
The nearest railway station is Kolhapur, which lies at a distance of 30 kilometer far off from Panhala. The railhead in Kolhapur is fine linked with two main cities of Maharashtra such as Mumbai and Pune. It also connects with meter gauge railroads that pass through the other major cities and towns in India. The most popular junction where frequent trains and expresses are available is Mumbai’s VT Railway where you can get railheads to Panhala. Once you reach Kolhapur railway station, ranges of tourist taxis are available to reach at  Panhala Fort. From Bangalore, you can board Rani Chennamma train which arrives at 1.40 PM every day. From Mumbai (Sahyadri Express- 06.05 AM), (Mahalaxmi Express- 07.20 AM) all days, and many more.

By road 
Traveling by road is perfect option to reach Panhala fort, which well connects to all major cities of Mumbai by the public transport of buses. It is the cheapest Transportation one can choice instead of taxis because it will charge you quite expensive. There are plenty of regular bus services that ply between Kolhapur as well as Panhala. Some of the buses also link with Pune that lies at a distance of 200 kilometer and Nasik around 450 kilometers. Other than state bus services, there are also tourist taxis which will charge you around Rs. 600 to Rs. 650 INR, the chargers varies as per the season.


Shivneri Fort

Shivneri hillfort, birth-place of Shivaji, is near Junnar town, about 85kms north of Pune.  Situated on a 300 metre high isolated hill, the fort is triangular in shape.  The wide base of the fort is towards the south and the narrow point is towards the north.  The ascending path to the fort is defended by seven gates, the fifth one being armoured with anti-elephant spikes.  The fort has several rock-hewn cisterns and ponds, of which two large ones are known as Ganga and Jumuna.  Today, there are only a few structures remaining in the fort.  At one end there is a ruined stable and at the other end a mosque of the Mughal period.  The house where Shivaji was born (in February, 1630 AD) has been recently restored and a temple with statues of Shivaji and Jijabai called Shivakunja, has also been built.  Sir Richard Temple in his book Shivaji and the Rise Marathas’ wrote about Shivneri: “You will see what a rugged precipitous place this is and what a fitting spot it was for a hero to be born in!”

The Shivneri hill, on which the fort is built, has a long back to the Satavahanas.  There remains of rock caves on all the three faces of Shivneri, which show that it was a Buddhist centre during the first three centuries AD.  After the Satavahanas, the Shivneri for was occupied by the Shilaharas, the Yadavas, the Bahamanis and the Mughals.  In 1599 AD the hill fort was granted to Shivaji’s grandfather, Maloji Bhosale and passed down to Shahaji.  Though Shivaji was born here, he had to surrender the fort to the Mughals and could not take it back in his lifetime.
The Shivneri cluster forts, comprising Harishchandragarh, Jumnar, Jivadhan, etc. was very important strategically, because it controlled the ancient Nane Ghat Pass.

How to Reach

By Air
The nearest airport to reach Shivneri fort is at Pune Airport which is situated around 10 kilometers from the city in Lohagaon area. The Indian Airlines operates regular domestic flights that pass through various major cities of India like Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, and Delhi. For international tourists, they can connect first reach to Mumbai International Airport and then board a domestic flight for Pune city. From airport you have to catch taxi to reach at Shivneri fort, but it could cost you little expensive.

By Rail
The nearest railway station is Pune Railway Junction, it is the main railhead which offers good networks on rails that connects other cities in India. There are many trains and expresses that are available from Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, and many more. For reaching Pune, Deccan Express is one of the fastest trains that depart from Mumbai Railway Junction.

By Road
There are many road transport facilities available to get at Shivneri fort. Regular state bus and private luxury bus services are provided to and from Pune which passes through numerous major cities of India like Hyderabad, Mumbai, and Goa. From Mumbai city, it directly links Pune at a distance of 200 kilometers. You can pick these buses from outside railway station or airport. Apart from bus, visitors can also travel by taxi, auto rickshaw, hired cars, which may cost you expensive to reach the fort.


Devgiri / Daulatabad Fort

Devagiri (Daultabad of the later period), 11kms north-west of Aurangabad, is a famous for its formidable hill fort.  The fort is situated on an isolated cone-shaped hill rising abruptly from the plain to the height of about 190 metres.  The fortification constitutes of three concentric lines of defensive walls with large number of bastions.  The noteworthy features of the fort are the moat, the scarp and the sub-terranean passage, all hewn of solid rock.  The upper outlet of the passage was filled with an iron grating, on which a large fire could be used to prevent the progress of the enemy.  The Chand Minar, the Chini Mahal and the Baradari are the important structures within the fort.

The Chand Minar, about 63 metres in height, was erected by Alauddin Bahman Shah in 1435 AD to conquest of Daulatabad.  Opposite the Minar is the Jumma masjid, whose pillars originally belonged to a temple.  Close to it, there is a large masonry tank.  The Chini Mahal at the end of the lower for is the place where Abdul Hasan Tana Shah, the last king Golconda, was confined by Aurangzeb in 1687 AD.  Nearby is a round bastion topped with a huge canon with ram’s head, called Kila Shikan or Fort breaker.  The Baradari, octagonal in shape, stands near the summit of the fort.  The principal bastion at the summit also carries a large canon.

Though the city of Devagiri was founded in 1187 AD by the Yadava king Bhillan V, the fort was constructed during the reign of Singhana II (1210-46 AD).  It was captured by Ala-ud-Din Kalji in 12 94 AD, marking the first Muslim invasion of the Deccan.  Finally in 1318 AD, Malik Kafur killed last Yadava Raja, Harapal.  Then in 1327 AD, Muhammed-bin-Tughluq sought to make it his capital, by transferring the entire population of Delhi and changing the name from Devagiri to Daulatabad.  Then it was in the possession of the Bhamanis till 1526 AD.  The fort remained in Mughal control till Aurangzeb’s death in 1707 AD., when it passed on to the Nizam of Hyderabad.  The famous Ellora Caves are just 16kms away from Devagiri-Daulatabad.

How to Reach
Nearest city is Aurangabad. It is connected to Mumbai and other cities too. The nearest airport is at Aurangabad. Private taxis and local bus can also be hired from Aurangabad. 

Harihar Fort

Harihar Fort
Grade : Medium          
Height : 3676 feet

A unique fort built on a triangular prism of rock. Its three faces and two edges are absolutely vertical. The third is slopes at an angle of about 75 degrees and is perfectly vertical for about 200 feet. A one meter wide rocky staircase is cut into this slope. On the top is a small temple and a cave with water. Both UTWAD and BASGAD can easily be approached from the base of this fort.

How to Reach :
Reach KASARA Railway station. Proceed towards VIHIGAON, KHODALA (31 Kms), SHRIGHAT (7 Kms), DEVGAON Phata (3 Kms) and then along the banks of the Upper VAITARNA lake to NIRGUDPADA or KOTUMB Pada (14 Kms) at the base

Tikona / Vitandgad

Tikona (Vitandgad) is located near Kamshet around 60 km from Pune The village nearest the fort is called Tikona-Peth. The 3500 ft high hill is pyramidal in shape and the name Tikona means "triangle".

The fort is a trekking destination noted for the large doors, the temple of 'Trimbakeshwar Mahadev', a water tank and some Satvahan caves. Trek organisers also commend the views of Pawna dam and the nearby forts of Tung, Lohagad and Visapur.

Malik Ahmed Nizamshah of the Nizam dynasty conquered the fort in 1585 and aanexed it to the Nizam territory. In 1657 Shivaji Maharaj (The Great Maratha Emperor) brought the whole of Konkan, which had been Nizam territory, under his control when he conquered Tikona along with the forts of Karnala, Lohgad, Mahuli, Songad, Tala, and Visapur. This fort was a strategic nexus: the centre of control for the entire Pawana Mawal region. In 1660, Netaji Palkar was charged with ensuring the security of fort Tikona. Jaysingh invaded the regionn in 1665 and the local villages were by Dilerkhan but the forts held out. Tikona fort was surrendered to the Mughal warrior Kubadkhan, who had attacked the region together with Halalkhan and others, according to the Treaty of Purandar signed on 12 June 1665. Kubadkhan took over the fort on 18 June but it was later recaptured by the Marathas

The mountains on Deccan plateau in the vicinity of Bor Ghat have many ancient caves like Karle, Bhaje, Bedse, Bhandara and Shelarwadi. The forts of Lohgad, Visapur, Tung and Tikona were built in order to defend these caves. This region also has a number of Ghat-routes connecting the ports on the western coast to the cities located on the Deccan plateau. These forts served as protectors of these important trade routes of ancient India. As the caves found in this area belong to the Buddhist and Heenyana era, it is believed that these forts must have been built around 800 to 1000 AD.

Not much is known about the history of this fort. Malik Ahmed Nizamshah of the Nizam dynasty conquered it in 1585 and thus it was made part of the Nizam territory. In 1657 king Shivaji conquered Tikona along with the forts of Mahuli, Lohgad, Visapur, Songad, Tala and Karnala. Thus, all areas of Konkan, which earlier belonged to the Nizam's territory, came under king Shivaji’s control. This fort was strategically very important to keep a watch on the entire region of Pauna Mawal. In 1660, Netaji Palkar was assigned the task of ensuring security of fort Tikona. This fort was surrendered to the Mughal warrior Kubadkhan, who had attacked the region together with Halalkhan and others. However, the Marathas later recaptured the fort.

In 1682, king Sambhaji met with Aurangzeb's son Akbar. After this meeting, Akbar was offered to stay at fort Tikona, however was sent later to Jaitapur since the climate here didn't suit him. A small battle was fought with the British on Tikona in year 1818 and the fort was damaged to a great extent. Till date the fort of Tikona lies in the form of ruins.

Sightseeing :

The whole fort can be seen in an hour's time, as the area is not so wide. Turn left after passing the entrance. In a short while a cistern and cave can be seen. About 10 to 15 persons can be accommodated in this cave. However, it is not suitable for a stay during monsoon. The path going uphill adjacent to the cave takes us to the entrance to the bastion. The steps in this stretch are a bit tiring. One can see cisterns on the right and fortification on the left after passing through the entrance. After taking a few steps straight ahead, a trail climbs down on our right. Here too are a few cisterns. Return back and join the main path, which takes us to a stretch of broken steps. A climb uphill brings us to a Mahadev temple, behind which is a big moat. Circumventing this moat takes us to the flag-post. From the bastion one can have a view of adjacent fort Tung, Lohgad, Visapur, Bhatrashi hill, Morse hill, Jambhuli hill, Pauna region and Fagne dam. Thus, the whole of Mawal region is visible from fort Tikona.

How to Reach
From the village of Tikona Peth :
The main route to the fort is from the village of Tikona Peth. To reach this village, alight at Kamshet, which is two stops ahead of Lonavala on the Mumbai- Pune rail route. From Kamshet railway station, take a bus / shared private vehicle (jeep) to Kale colony. One can also get a vehicle to reach Tikona Peth from Kale colony.

A bus at 08:30 a.m. at Kamshet bound for Paund or Morsay is convenient for reaching Tikona Peth. From Tikona Peth the fort can be reached in about 45 minutes. This straight route is quite simple and not at all tiring. After passing through the entrance door, a path leads towards left and takes us to the citadel in about 20 minutes.

From the Bedse caves :
A combined trek of Lohgad, Visapur, Bedse caves and Tikona can be done. On such a trek, Tikona can be reached from the Bedse caves.

From Kevre-Bramhnoli-Tikona Peth :

A combined trek of Tung and Tikona can also be done. For that, climb down to Tungawadi after visiting fort Tung. From here reach the village of Bramhnoli with a launch available from the village of Kevre. It takes about 30 minutes' to walk from Bramhnoli to Tikona Peth.

Visit our Main Website